POL S 430 A: Civil-Military Relations in Democracies

Meeting Time: 
MW 2:30pm - 4:20pm
Location: 
* *
SLN: 
19355
Joint Sections: 
LSJ 431 A
Instructor:
Elizabeth Kier

Syllabus Description:

Winter 2021

PS430:  DEMOCRACY AND THE MILITARY: 

ISSUES IN U.S. CIVIL MILITARY RELATIONS

M/W, 230-420

 

Prof. KIER

office hrs: Wed, 430-600 pm, link here 

ekier@uw.edu

                            

Protecting a democracy from foreign threats can demand the creation of a powerful military. Yet the creation of a powerful military can undermine the democracy that the military is designed to protect. How do, and how should, democracies manage the relationship between the civilians and the military? In exploring civilian and military perspectives, this course addresses issues in U.S. civil-military relations such as the draft versus an all-volunteer force and the “revolt of the generals” during the war in Iraq. The course also examines issues of race, gender, and sexual orientation in the military. We will focus on U.S. civil-military relations, but students can use their papers to explore civil-military relations in other democracies.

 

Remote instruction:  We will meet remotely with Zoom. Since the class is a small seminar designed around student discussion, it will be held synchronously. Regular participation – not just attendance – is required. Let me know in advance if you must miss a class.

To protect student privacy, the seminars and office hours will not be recorded.

Students can borrow laptops, tablets, and other equipment for free from the Student Technology Loan Program. For help navigating online instruction: Zoom Instructions.

UW students taking courses remotely while living abroad are subject to the laws of their local jurisdiction. Local authorities may limit access to course material and take punitive action towards you. Unfortunately, UW has no authority over these laws or how local authorities enforce them. If you are taking UW courses while abroad, exercise caution when enrolling in courses that cover topics and issues censored in your jurisdiction. Contact your academic advisor who will assist you in exploring options if you have concerns regarding a particular course.

 

Readings: The articles & book chapters are on the course website. The book is available for purchase at the University Bookstore. It is also available online for free through HathiTrust on the UW library website.

  • Sherie Mershon & Steven Schlossman, Foxholes and Color Lines: Desegregating the U.S. Armed Forces, Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Readings questions for each section will be available under "Files."  Use these questions to guide your reading and to prepare for class discussion. 

 

Requirements:  A research paper (30%); two take-home exams (25% each); and class participation (20%).

Each student has one “free pass” on seminar participation. You are otherwise expected to come to class prepared to discuss the readings, the discussion questions (available under "Files"), and each other’s research projects. If you are unable to attend a class, you are expected to submit written answers to the discussion questions within a week of the missed class. Students will also regularly give presentations on the readings.  

You will have 48 hours to complete each exam. They will be open book, open note, but you are required to work independently. Consulting others is a violation of university policies on academic honesty. The exam will specify the expected word count. It will also list when Prof. Kier will be available to answer questions about the exam.

No make-up exams unless the student provides a written excuse from a physician or some other recognized authority for having missed an exam. For additional information on courses, grading, academic conduct, and on university policies, go to UW and Department policies.

Consult http://depts.washington.edu/pswrite/plag.html if you are uncertain about the meaning of plagiarism and how to avoid it. The University has a license agreement with SimCheck, an educational tool that helps identify plagiarism. You will submit your exams and research paper through this service. It indicates the amount of original text and whether all material that you quoted, paraphrased, summarized, or used from another source is appropriately referenced.

 

Accommodations:  The Disability Resources for Students office transitioned advising and services online and appointments are conducted remotely: voice: 543-8924; TTY: 543-8925; fax: 616-8379; and email: uwdss@uw.edu. With a letter from their office, we can easily arrange accommodations.

Washington state law requires that UW develop a policy for accommodation of student absences or significant hardship due to reasons of faith or conscience, or for organized religious activities. The UW’s policy, including more information about how to request an accommodation, is available at Religious Accommodations Policy (https://registrar.washington.edu/staffandfaculty/religious-accommodations-policy/). Accommodations must be requested within the first two weeks of this course using the Religious Accommodations Request form (https://registrar.washington.edu/students/religious-accommodations-request/).

 

RESEARCH PAPER

This course focuses on U.S. civil military relations but there are many issues that we do not discuss, and other democracies grapple with similar questions. The paper provides an opportunity to explore one of these additional issues. It can focus on the United States or other democracies. 

 

Choosing a topic

You have lots of flexibility in choosing a topic. We will discuss it in class, I will often suggest topics, and I encourage you to talk to me about possible topics. Here are some examples:

  • Why did the Israeli Defense Forces quickly accept the open integration of gays and lesbians in the early 1990s while the U.S. military actively and successfully resisted this change in 1993?
  • What have Congress and the different services done to address the rise of white supremacy in the U.S. military?
  • Many analysts argue that there was a crisis in civil military relations during the Trump administration. Focus on three of the most important indicators of that crisis: What are they? Why are they seen as a problem? And does everyone agree that each are indicative of a problem?
  • Compare the informal influence (Huntington’s term) of the British and U.S. military. Discuss the implications of these findings for civil military relations in each democracy.  
  • Compare President Lincoln’s conflict with General George McClennan with President Truman’s conflict with General Douglas MacArthur.

 

Finding sources

The paper requires significant research (it is not an opinion piece). Be careful in your use of the web: Do not rely on blogs or other unfiltered sources. Use the UW library website to access journal and newspaper articles. See https://guides.lib.uw.edu/research/faq/scholarly on how to access peer-reviewed journals.

I encourage you to consult the Suzzallo reference librarians for help in locating sources. You can email Emily Keller (emkeller@uw.edu), the political science librarian, for an appointment. She can introduce you to or refresh your knowledge of search engines and help you locate sources.

You are expected to cite 10-12 sources; no more than 15% can be websites.

 

Writing well

Your paper must be well written (and will be assessed on content and style). Strunk & White’s, Elements of Style is indispensable. I also recommend that you exchange your papers with colleagues for both comments on your argument and assistance with your writing. Even the most accomplished authors profit from editorial feedback.

Papers should be 10-12 pages (2500–3000 words, not including bibliography). Put word count on first page. Include citations and a bibliography and consult stylebooks to ensure that you use the correct format. http://guides.lib.washington.edu/content.php?pid=69943&sid=517698

 

Due dates

The paper proposal and overview should be emailed (using your UW email address) to the course listserve. 

  • paper proposal: 1pm, Sun, Feb 7. Late submission will result in a .2 deduction from the final paper grade. 
  • paper overview: 1pm, Tues, Feb 16. Late submission will result in a .2 deduction from the final paper grade.
  • paper presentation: in class on Wed, March 10.
  • final paper: 430pm, Tues, March 16. submit on canvas. Late papers lose .5 pts/day, e.g. a 4.0 becomes a 3.5.

 

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Mon, January 4:  Introduction

 

Wed, January 6: The U.S. Constitution & the Establishment of the U.S. Military

Richard H. Kohn, “The Constitution & National Security: The Intent of the Framers,” in The United
States Military under the Constitution of the United States,
edited by Richard H. Kohn, NYU Press, 1991.

Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, Federalist papers nos. 3, 4, 7, 8, 24, 26, 34, 41, in The Federalist Papers, edited by Clinton Rossiter, NY: Penguin, 1991.  

 

Mon, January 11: The Rise of a Professional Military, Part 1: Samuel Huntington

Samuel Huntington, The Soldier and the State, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957, pp. 7-97.

 

Wed, January 13: The Rise of a Professional Military, Part 2: Morris Janowitz 

Morris Janowitz, The Professional Soldier, Free Press, 1971, pp. 3-74 (skim pp. 54-74), 417-40.

Peter Maass, “Professor Nagl’s War,” New York Times Magazine, Jan 11, 2004.

 

Mon, January 18:  No class: Martin Luther King Jr. Day

 

Wed, January 20: The Cold War: Decisions about the Use of Force

(review Huntington, The Soldier & the State, pp. 59-70)

Richard Betts, Soldiers, Statesmen, & Cold War Crises, Harvard Univ. Press, 1977, 1-15, 96-138, 214-224.

 

Mon, January 25: Objective Control & Decisions about the Use of Force

(review Betts’s two forms of influence, direct and indirect)

Eliot Cohen, "The Unequal Dialogue: the theory & reality of civil-military relations," in Soldiers & Civilians: the civil-military gap, edited by Peter D. Feaver and Richard H. Kohn, MIT PRess, 2001. 

Bob Woodward, excerpts from “Military thwarted president seeking choice in Afghanistan,” Washington Post, Sept 27, 2010).

Robert Scales, “A war the Pentagon doesn’t want,” Washington Post, Sept 6, 2013; & David Barno, “U.S. war decisions rightfully belong to elected civilian leaders, not the military,” Washington Post, Sept 13, 2013.

Mark Landler and Helene Cooper, “White House Wants Pentagon to Offer More Options on North Korea,” NYT, Feb 1, 2018.

 

Wed, January 27:  Military Service: the Draft or an All-Volunteer Force?

Background: “Conscription in America,” from The Report of the President’s Commission on an All-Volunteer Armed Force (the “Gates Commission”). Macmillan Company, 1970.

Edward M. Kennedy, “Inequities in the Draft,” New York Times, February 24, 1971.

Joseph A. Califano, Jr., “Doubts about an All-Volunteer Army,” reply by Roger T. Kelley, The New Republic (March 3, 1973); and Califano’s rejoinder, The New Republic (April 21, 1973).

John M. Swomley, “Why the Draft Should Go,” The Nation (July 11, 1969).

Thomas B. Curtis, “The Draft; Unjust and Unnecessary,” The Forensic Quarterly (May 1968).

Milton Friedman, “Why Not a Volunteer Army?” New Individualist (spring 1967): 3-9.

Charles B. Rangel, The US military is as unequal as America. Want a fair fight? Reinstate the draft, The Guardian, Sept 30, 2014.

David Barno, “A New Moral Compact: A military draft that could actually work,” Foreign Policy, Nov 9, 2012.

Schafer, Amy. Generations of War: the Rise of the Warrior Caste and the All-Volunteer Force (excerpts), Center for American Progress, 2017.

  

*** First take-home exam will be available under "Assignments" by 1pm on Sat, Jan 30 ***.

The exam will specify the expected word count. It will also list when Prof. Kier will be available to answer questions about the exam. You are expected to work independently. Consulting others is a violation of academic honesty. Submit your answers on Canvas by 5pm on Mon, Feb 1.

 

Mon, February 1: First take-home exam due by 5pm. 

 See instructions immediately above.

 

Wed, February 3: Post-Cold War: A Crisis in Civil-Military Relations?

Richard Kohn, “Out of Control,” The National Interest (spring 1994): 3-17.

 Exchange on Civil Military Relations with Colin Powell, John Lehman, William Odom, Samuel Huntington and Richard Kohn, The National Interest (summer 1994): 23-31.

Edward Luttwak, “Washington’s Biggest Scandal,” Commentary (May 1994): 29-33.

Daniel Rabil, “Impeach my commander in chief,” Washington Times, November 9, 1998.

Lt. Cdr. Bryan McGrath, “Injecting the military into politics,” Washington Times, November 13, 1998.

Sharon K. Weiner,  “Military Advice for Political Purpose,” in Mission Creep: the Militarization of U.S. Foreign Policy, edited by Gordon Adams and Shoon Murray, Georgetown University Press, 2014.

 

Sun., February 7: Submit paper proposal by 1pm.

Use your UW email to send your proposal to the course listserve by 1pm on Sun, Feb 7 (the day prior to class). The proposal (150-250 words) is meant as a first-cut at a possible topic. It should be well written but does not need to be well developed. It should state your puzzle. Or, if uncertain what you want to research, briefly discuss one or two topics.

All group members are expected to carefully read the proposals in their group and to come to the small group discussion with questions and comments on each proposal.  This means that all students must submit their proposals by the due date. Late submission will result in a .2 deduction from the final paper grade.

 

Mon, February 8: Small group discussion of research proposal  

See instructions immediately above.

 

Wed, February 10: Rumsfeld & Iraq: “The Revolt of the Generals”

Richard H. Kohn, “The Erosion of Civilian Control of the Military in the United States Today,” Naval War College Review (summer 2002): 9-37. 

MacKubin Thomas Owens, “Rumsfeld, the Generals, and the State of U.S. Civil-military Relations,” Naval War College Review (autumn 2006).

Peter Spiegel, “President comes to the defense of Rumsfeld,” Los Angeles Times, April 15, 2006.

Scott Shane, “A Break with military tradition,” Star Tribune (Minneapolis) April 16, 2006.

Dean Godsen, “Why America’s generals are out for revenge,” Times (London), April 4, 2006.

E.J. Dionne, Jr. “Roots of the uprising,” Washington Post, April 18, 2006.

Max Boot, “A General disgrace,” Los Angeles Times, April 19, 2006

 

Mon, February 15: No class:  President’s Day

 

Tues, February 16:  submit description of research paper by 1pm

Use your UW email to send a description of your research paper to the class listserve by 1pm on Tues, Feb 16 (the day prior to class). The proposal (250-350 words) should be well written and well developed. It should 1) specify your puzzle; 2) outline how you are addressing it; 3) survey the evidence you have found; and 4) list 10-12 sources that you have or will consult.

All group members are expected to carefully read the proposals in their group and to come to the small group discussion with questions and comments on each proposal.  This means that all students must submit their proposals by the due date. Late submission will result in a .2 deduction from the final paper grade.

 

Wed, February 17: Small group discussion of research paper 

See instructions immediately above. 

 

Mon, February 22: Civilians & the Military: A Dangerous and Widening Gap?

Thomas E. Ricks, “The Widening Gap between the U.S. Military and U.S. Society,” The Atlantic Monthly (July 1997): 66-78.

Ole R. Holsti, “Of Chasms & Convergences: Attitudes and Beliefs of Civilians and Military Elites,” in Soldiers and Civilians, edited by Peter D. Feaver and Richard H. Kohn, MIT Press, 2001, 15-63 & 90-99.

Diane H. Mazur, “The R.O.T.C. Myth,” NYT (Opinions) Oct 24, 2010.  

Thomas E. Ricks, “Why We Should Get Rid of West Point,” Washington Post (Opinions) April 19, 2009.

Phillip Carter and David Barno, “Military bases are our most exclusive gated communities — and that hurts veterans, “ NYT (Opinions), Nov 8, 2013.

 

Wed, February 24: Democratic Values:  Race in the U.S. Military

Sherie Mershon and Steven Schlossman, Foxholes and Color Lines: Desegregating the U.S. Armed Forces, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998, pp. 1-134. Available online with the UW library through HathiTrust.

  

Mon, March 1: Democratic Values: Open integration of gays & lesbians in the U.S. Military

Maj. Arthur J. Corbett, “Disband the Marine Corps,” Marine Corps Gazette (January 1993).

Lt. Col. Michael R. Lehnert, “The Homosexual Assault: A Clash of Values, Marine Corps Gazette (June 1993.

Capt Mark Cantrell, “No Place for Homosexuals,” Marine Corps Gazette (April 1993): 65-73.

Cmdr Eugene Gomulka, “Why No Gays,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (December 1992): 44-46. 

Capt. J. F. Kelly, “A Right to Serve?” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (May 1993): 81-84.

Maj. W. DeCamp, “Standing Up for Truth,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (September 1993): 89-90.

Maj. M. Slater, “Losing the Next War,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (November 1993): 46-49.

Merrill A. McPeak, “Don't Ask, Don't Tell, Don't Change,” New York Times, March 5, 2010.

Brent Staples, “Tinkering at the Margins of Anti-Gay Bigotry,” New York Times, November 8, 1999.

Aaron Belkin, “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell: Is the Gay Ban Based on Military Necessity?” Parameters: The U.S. Army War College Quarterly (summer 2003): 108-18.

Barry Goldwater, “Ban on Gays is Attempt to Stall the Inevitable,” Washington Post, January 6, 1999. 

Alan K. Simpson, “Bigotry that hurts our military,” Washington Post, March 14, 2007.

 

Wed, March 3:  Democratic Values: Women in Combat in the U.S. Military

See “Debate: Women in Combat” for readings and for the instructions on how to prepare for the class debate.

 

*** Second take-exam will be available under "Assignments" by 1pm on Sat, March 6 ***

The exam will specify the expected word count. It will also list when Prof. Kier will be available to answer questions about the exam. You are expected to work independently. Consulting others is a violation of academic honesty. Submit your answers on Canvas by 5pm on Mon, March 8.

 

Mon, March 8:  Second take home exam due by 5pm. Submit on Canvas.

See instructions immediately above.

 

Wed, March 10:  Research paper presentations

Everyone will give a five-minute presentation on their paper’s main findings. Practice to ensure that you speak no longer than five minutes. It is important to leave time for questions, and to develop the skill to correctly time a presentation.

 

Tues, March 16:   Submit research paper on Canvas by 430pm today

                              Note instructions on length, format, and sources

 

 

 

Catalog Description: 
Explores issues of civil-military relations in the United States including debates about the garrison state hypothesis; military advice on the use of force; the civil-military "gap"; and issues of race, gender, and sexual orientation in the military. Offered: jointly with LSJ 431.
Department Requirements: 
International Relations Field
International Security Option
GE Requirements: 
Individuals and Societies (I&S)
Credits: 
5.0
Status: 
Active
Last updated: 
October 12, 2020 - 11:51pm