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German and Russian Public Diplomacy Efforts in Kyrgyzstan: A Comparative Study of Norm Entrepreneurship

Pierobon, C. (2023) "German and Russian Public Diplomacy Efforts in Kyrgyzstan: A Comparative Study of Norm Entrepreneurship", Europe-Asia Studies 75:8, 1384-1407 (DOI:10.1080/09668136.2023.2213871) [with Aijan Sharshenova]

This article explores Russian and German public diplomacy efforts in Central Asia through the example of Kyrgyzstan. Due to a difficult economic and socio-political situation, Kyrgyzstan remains open to externally funded programmes and projects, including initiatives funded by foreign governments, and thus offers a unique environment for the study of public diplomacy. The article looks at transnational public diplomacy actors such as German political foundations and Russian-sponsored organisations active in the country. Overall, the article offers interesting insights into the nature and substance of the soft power policies pursued by Germany and Russia that are relevant for Kyrgyzstan and beyond.

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